In Oost Azie leefde het verwante geslacht Sinomegaceros , terwijl op veel eilanden in de Middellandse Zee dwergvormen voorkwamen . Er waren dus “dwergreuzenherten”! De Megacerini zijn recentelijk volledig uitgestorven. De meest verwante nog levende soort is het damhert . Het reuzenhert had een maximale schofthoogte van ongeveer 2 meter in westelijke populaties tot 2,1 meter meer oostelijk  , bijna zo groot als een eland . Het was dus niet het grootste hert dat we kennen, dat was waarschijnlijk de aan de eland verwante uitgestorven Cervalcus latifrons . Het was wel het hert met het grootste gewei. Oudere opgaven gaan tot een spanwijdte van 4,3 meter  , maar recente auteurs komen op maximaal 3,6 meter  . Het record voor een bestaande hertachtige staat op naam van een eland uit Alaska met 2,1 meter  en zelfs Cervalces latifrons haalde maar 2,5 meter .
Speleothems formed from salt, sulfur and other minerals are also known. Speleothems made of pure calcium carbonate are a translucent white color, but often speleothems are colored by chemicals such as iron oxide , copper or manganese oxide , or may be brown because of mud and silt particulate inclusions. Chemistry[ edit ] Many factors impact the shape and color of speleothem formations including the rate and direction of water seepage, the amount of acid in the water, the temperature and humidity content of a cave, air currents, the above ground climate, the amount of annual rainfall and the density of the plant cover.
Abbevillian is a currently obsolescent name for a tool tradition that is increasingly coming to be called Oldowan (or Olduwan). The original artifacts were collected from road construction sites on the Somme river near Abbeville by a French customs officer, Boucher de Perthes.
Disclaimer Many project websites link to this document in their sections on how to get help. That’s fine, it’s the use we intended — but if you are a webmaster creating such a link for your project page, please display prominently near the link notice that we are not a help desk for your project! We have learned the hard way that without such a notice, we will repeatedly be pestered by idiots who think having published this document makes it our job to solve all the world’s technical problems.
If you’re reading this document because you need help, and you walk away with the impression you can get it directly from the authors of this document, you are one of the idiots we are talking about. Don’t ask us questions. We’ll just ignore you. We are here to show you how to get help from people who actually know about the software or hardware you’re dealing with, but Unless you know for certain that one of the authors is an expert on what you’re dealing with, leave us alone and everybody will be happier.
Introduction In the world of hackers , the kind of answers you get to your technical questions depends as much on the way you ask the questions as on the difficulty of developing the answer. This guide will teach you how to ask questions in a way more likely to get you a satisfactory answer. Now that use of open source has become widespread, you can often get as good answers from other, more experienced users as from hackers.
This is a Good Thing; users tend to be just a little bit more tolerant of the kind of failures newbies often have. Still, treating experienced users like hackers in the ways we recommend here will generally be the most effective way to get useful answers out of them, too.
How accurate are Carbon-14 and other radioactive dating methods?
Table of Contents Overview Distributed version control systems DVCSes are powerful and liberating tools for software developers, but projects aiming to choose one of the major contenders can find themselves mired in contention and politics. The most common such controversy is whether to use git or hg aka Mercurial. It is even possible to support a CVS emulation from the same repository. This page is a guide to up-converting your repository, finding the tools you need, and adopting practices that will reduce process and political friction to a minimum.
Your developers will need some education in good practice to get the most out of the tools. Commercial Note If you are an organization that pays programmers and has a requirement to do a repository conversion, the author can be engaged to perform or assist with the transition.
ESR dating can be tricky and must be applied with discernment. It can never be used alone: “One date only is No date”, or in other words, “multiple lines of evidence and multiple lines of reasoning are necessary in absolute dating“. However, “good samples” might be .
Posted on September 30, by Scott Alexander [Content warning: Try to keep this off Reddit and other similar sorts of things. All the townspeople want to forgive him immediately, and they mock the titular priest for only being willing to give a measured forgiveness conditional on penance and self-reflection. They lecture the priest on the virtues of charity and compassion.
Later, it comes out that the beloved nobleman did not in fact kill his good-for-nothing brother. The good-for-nothing brother killed the beloved nobleman and stole his identity. Now the townspeople want to see him lynched or burned alive, and it is only the priest who — consistently — offers a measured forgiveness conditional on penance and self-reflection.
The priest tells them: You forgive a conventional duel just as you forgive a conventional divorce. He further notes that this is why the townspeople can self-righteously consider themselves more compassionate and forgiving than he is. Actual forgiveness, the kind the priest needs to cultivate to forgive evildoers, is really really hard. The fake forgiveness the townspeople use to forgive the people they like is really easy, so they get to boast not only of their forgiving nature, but of how much nicer they are than those mean old priests who find forgiveness difficult and want penance along with it.
Whether or not forgiveness is right is a complicated topic I do not want to get in here.
They were much stronger than modern humans;  especially in the upper body. Neanderthal long bones and joints are thicker than ours, and some long bones have a slight curve. Both the thickness and the curve suggest the need for more strength than our species. Young Neanderthals Edit Since , tooth age can be directly calculated using the noninvasive imaging of growth patterns in tooth enamel by means of x-ray synchrotron microtomography.
These fractures are often healed and show little or no sign of infection, suggesting that injured individuals were cared for during times of incapacitation.
The Neanderthal, a species of the genus Homo, was a near relative of our own species. Its scientific name is Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. ↑ “Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating in karst environments”. Acta Carsologica (Ljubljana: SAZU.
These plants are better adapted to dry and hot climates than the much more common C3 plants. Although it was already established that North Africa was arid in the early Last Glacial, Scholz et al. Return of Neanderthals to the Levant 80 to 55 ka [ edit ] Potential causes for the initial extinction of modern humans from the Levant and subsequent replacement by Neanderthals around 80 ka include a short-term extreme environmental change in the Levant and environmental changes in the regions neighbouring the Levant.
The only long-term environmental change that has been found in the Levant at this period is an increase in rainfall Hallin et al. Alternatively, climate change could have connected the Neanderthal biome to the north, allowing Neanderthals to replace modern humans if Neanderthals were better pre-adapted to the new Levantine environment. It is also possible for climate change to have allowed the North African desert to expand and cut off the modern human Levantine biome from the larger African one.
This could have driven to extinction the modern human population with too few individuals to survive when disconnected from Africa, allowing Neanderthals to walk into the region. This could have happened even if modern humans were better adapted to the region than Neanderthals. In other words, in this case, the only advantage Neanderthals would have had in the Levant is that they could actually get there.
Environment[ edit ] Contrarily to modern humans who arrived in the Levant in period particularly warm in both Eurasia and Africa, Neanderthals are thought to have entered the Levant in a period of increasing Eurasian coldness and aridity known as the Last Glacial Period Tchernov
NBA Fastbreak; Ball trap fix. Cirqus Voltaire; Disappearing jet bumper assembly not releasing. Cirqus Voltaire; Adjustment Sheet Update. Champion Pub; Arms breaking prematurely. The “P” suffix merely indicates a “plastic” chip case. Bank switching is required to address more than 64KB.
Electron Spin Resonance Dating, or ESR dating, is a technique used to date newly formed materials, which Radiocarbon dating cannot, like carbonates, tooth enamel, or materials that have been previously heated like igneous rock.
Biografia[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Thomas Ruggles Pynchon Jr. La tradizione delle cronache familiari risale molto indietro nel tempo: Per due anni studia Fisica e Ingegneria alla Cornell University di Ithaca NY , uno dei college della Ivy League , rifiutando categoricamente di consegnare la propria foto per il registro delle matricole. Alcuni personaggi nei suoi primi romanzi sono marinai oppure appena congedati dal servizio: Benny Profane in V. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Pynchon si laurea nel giugno ; la sua domanda per una borsa di studio della Ford Foundation, finalizzata alla scrittura di un libretto d’opera, contiene un interessante curriculum che divide in 5 fasi cronologiche successive i suoi interessi letterari: Nello stesso anno il racconto Entropy  viene selezionato per l’antologia annuale The best American short stories, La sera mettevo occhiali da sole con la montatura di corno.
L’ entropia del titolo diventa la metafora termodinamica di una sorta di equilibrio cosmico: A differenza degli scrittori della Beat Generation, i cui eroi o anti-eroi sono pieni di romantico furore, i personaggi di Thomas Pynchon sono impacciati, borderline, schlemiel in bilico tra paranoia e farsa: Pynchon aveva siglato nel Sessanta un contratto editoriale con J.
Lippincott  , al quale consegna l’opera su cui lavora da tempo: L’incanto del lotto
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Radiometric dating By measuring the amount of radioactive decay of a radioactive isotope with a known half-life , geologists can establish the absolute age of the parent material. A number of radioactive isotopes are used for this purpose, and depending on the rate of decay, are used for dating different geological periods. More slowly decaying isotopes are useful for longer periods of time, but less accurate in absolute years.
Electron spin resonance dating‘s wiki: Electron Spin Resonance Dating, or ESR dating, is a technique used to date newly formed materials, which Radiocarbon dating cannot, like carbonates, tooth enamel, or materials that have been previously heated like igneous rock.
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Others Cave popcorn , or cave coral, are small, knobby clusters of calcite Cave pearls are the result of water dripping from high above, causing small “seed” crystals to turn over so often that they form into near-perfect spheres of calcium carbonate Snottites are colonies of predominantly sulfur oxidizing bacteria and have the consistency of “snot”, or mucus Calcite rafts are thin accumulations of calcite that appear on the surface of cave pools Speleothems may also occur in lava tubes.
Although sometimes similar in appearance to speleothems in caves formed by dissolution, these are formed by the cooling of residual lava within the lava tube. Speleothems formed from salt, sulfur and other minerals are also known. Speleothems made of pure calcium carbonate are a translucent white color, but often speleothems are colored by minerals such as iron , copper or manganese , or may be brown because of mud and silt particulate inclusions.
Chemistry Many factors impact the shape and color of speleothem formations including the rate and direction of water seepage, the amount of acid in the water, the temperature and humidity content of a cave, air currents, the above ground climate, the amount of annual rainfall and the density of the plant cover. Most cave chemistry revolves around calcite ; CaCO 3 , the primary mineral in limestone.
ESR dating determines how long a sample has been exposed to the radiation level of its environment by measuring the atoms with unpaired electrons (free radicals) which were created by the ambient radiation.
Since an electron’s spin magnetic moment is constant approximately the Bohr magneton , then the electron must have gained or lost angular momentum through spin—orbit coupling. Because the mechanisms of spin—orbit coupling are well understood, the magnitude of the change gives information about the nature of the atomic or molecular orbital containing the unpaired electron.
The principal axes of this tensor are determined by the local fields, for example, by the local atomic arrangement around the unpaired spin in a solid or in a molecule. Choosing an appropriate coordinate system say, x,y,z allows one to “diagonalize” this tensor, thereby reducing the maximal number of its components from 9 to 3: Here Bx, By and Bz are the components of the magnetic field vector in the coordinate system x,y,z ; their magnitudes change as the field is rotated, so does the frequency of the resonance.
For a large ensemble of randomly oriented spins, the EPR spectrum consists of three peaks of characteristic shape at frequencies gxxB0, gyyB0 and gzzB0:
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Drag the included file into your Applications folder and you will have a Tor Browser application in your chosen language that you can pin on your Dock. Linux Instructions Download the architecture-appropriate file above, save it somewhere, then run one of the following two commands to extract the package archive: Once that’s done, switch to the Tor browser directory by running:
The Divje Babe Flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found in at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia. “ESR Dating Human Cultural Evolution and Climatic Change During the Late Pleistocene at Divje Discovered: near Cerkno, Slovenia.
See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric  dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history. Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering —the reason Jesus came into the world See Six Days?
Christians , by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously. This only makes sense with a time-line beginning with the creation week thousands of years ago. It makes no sense at all if man appeared at the end of billions of years. We will deal with carbon dating first and then with the other dating methods. How the carbon clock works Carbon has unique properties that are essential for life on Earth.